Copyright, Princeton University Press. No part of this book may be distributed, posted, or reproduced in any form by digital or mechanical means without prior. PDF | Special Turing issue - 60 years anniversary of his death: This paper makes no apology for its reading like a for the definitive Alan Turing biography. Our ability to incorporate computers in our everyday lives is largely due to the contributions of one individual, Alan Turning.V Alan Turing, the.
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A biography published by the Royal Society shortly after Turing's death .. (PDF).  Wright, Oliver (23 December ). “Alan Turing gets. The Second World War. 8 He designed the first ever electronic computer. Alan Turing. Biography for children. The story of important figures in the history of. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1. Turing, Alan Mathison, – 2. Mathematicians–Great Britain–Biography. 3. Computer.
I found it to be a page-turner in spite of the occasionally esoteric explanations of mathematical theories that reminded of why Brooklyn Technical High School was not the wisest choice for me. For anyone whose interest in the pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, and logician was piqued by the film, the book that served as the film's source material, Andrew Hodges's exhaustive biography Alan Turing: The Enigma, has the answers. A great read, Hodges's intellectual biography depicts Turing as a brilliant mathematician; a crucial pioneering figure in the theorization and engineering of digital computing; and the biggest brain in Bletchley Park's Hut 8.
Good, Nature[A] really excellent biography. The great thing about this book is that the author is a mathematician and can explain the details of Turing's work--as a scientist, mathematician, and a code breaker--in a way that is easy to understand. He is also wonderful at the emotional nuance of Alan's life, who was a somewhat odd--a student was assigned to him in school to help him maintain a semblance of tidiness in his appearance, rooms and school work and at Bletchley Park he was known for chaining his tea mug to a pipe--but he was also charming and intelligent and Hodges brings all the aspects of his personality and life into sharp focus.
This account of Turing's life is a definitive scholarly work, rich in primary source documentation and small-grained historical detail.
It is hard to imagine a more thoughtful and compassionate portrait of a human being. Hodges examined available primary sources and interviewed surviving witnesses to elucidate Turing's multiple dimensions.
A mathematician, Hodges ably explained Turing's intellectual accomplishments with insight, and situated them within their wider historical contexts. He also empathetically explored the centrality of Turing's sexual identity to his thought and life in a persuasive rather than reductive way. Perceptive and absorbing, Andrew Hodges's book is scientific biography at its best. In late he returned to Cambridge for a sabbatical year during which he produced a seminal work on Intelligent Machinery that was not published in his lifetime.
The full version of Turing's ACE was not built until after his death. The interrogation had the form of a colloquium. A year later, he became Deputy Director of the Computing Machine Laboratory, where he worked on software for one of the earliest stored-program computers—the Manchester Mark 1.
Turing wrote the first version of the Programmer's Manual for this machine, and was recruited by Ferranti as a consultant in the development of their commercialised machine, the Ferranti Mark 1. He continued to be paid consultancy fees by Ferranti until his death.
The idea was that a computer could be said to "think" if a human interrogator could not tell it apart, through conversation, from a human being. In Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D. Champernowne , began writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist. By , the program was completed and dubbed the Turbochamp. Instead, Turing "ran" the program by flipping through the pages of the algorithm and carrying out its instructions on a chessboard, taking about half an hour per move.
The game was recorded. He was interested in morphogenesis , the development of patterns and shapes in biological organisms.
Among other things, he wanted to understand Fibonacci phyllotaxis , the existence of Fibonacci numbers in plant structures. For example, if a catalyst A is required for a certain chemical reaction to take place, and if the reaction produced more of the catalyst A, then we say that the reaction is autocatalytic , and there is positive feedback that can be modelled by nonlinear differential equations.
Turing discovered that patterns could be created if the chemical reaction not only produced catalyst A, but also produced an inhibitor B that slowed down the production of A.
If A and B then diffused through the container at different rates, then you could have some regions where A dominated and some where B did.
To calculate the extent of this, Turing would have needed a powerful computer, but these were not so freely available in , so he had to use linear approximations to solve the equations by hand. These calculations gave the right qualitative results, and produced, for example, a uniform mixture that oddly enough had regularly spaced fixed red spots. The Russian biochemist Boris Belousov had performed experiments with similar results, but could not get his papers published because of the contemporary prejudice that any such thing violated the second law of thermodynamics.
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Turing was published in On 23 January, Turing's house was burgled. Murray told Turing that he and the burglar were acquainted, and Turing reported the crime to the police.
During the investigation, he acknowledged a sexual relationship with Murray. Homosexual acts were criminal offences in the United Kingdom at that time,  and both men were charged with " gross indecency " under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act Turing was later convinced by the advice of his brother and his own solicitor, and he entered a plea of guilty.
Turing and Murray, was brought to trial on 31 March His probation would be conditional on his agreement to undergo hormonal physical changes designed to reduce libido. He accepted the option of injections of what was then called stilboestrol now known as diethylstilbestrol or DES , a synthetic oestrogen ; this feminization of his body was continued for the course of one year.
The treatment rendered Turing impotent and caused breast tissue to form ,  fulfilling in the literal sense Turing's prediction that "no doubt I shall emerge from it all a different man, but quite who I've not found out". He was denied entry into the United States after his conviction in , but was free to visit other European countries.
Turing was never accused of espionage but, in common with all who had worked at Bletchley Park, he was prevented by the Official Secrets Act from discussing his war work.
Cyanide poisoning was established as the cause of death. An inquest determined that he had committed suicide. Andrew Hodges and another biographer, David Leavitt , have both speculated that Turing was re-enacting a scene from the Walt Disney film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , his favourite fairy tale.
Both men noted that in Leavitt's words he took "an especially keen pleasure in the scene where the Wicked Queen immerses her apple in the poisonous brew. He suggested an alternative explanation for the cause of Turing's death: the accidental inhalation of cyanide fumes from an apparatus used to electroplate gold onto spoons.
The potassium cyanide was used to dissolve the gold.
Turing had such an apparatus set up in his tiny spare room. Copeland noted that the autopsy findings were more consistent with inhalation than with ingestion of the poison.
Turing also habitually ate an apple before going to bed, and it was not unusual for the apple to be discarded half-eaten.Jack, et al. The book also tells how this work was directly related to Turing's leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic.
Cognitive Science and the Turing Machine: The cause of death was cyanide poisoning, believed to be via a half-eaten apple found by his bed, but this was never tested. It will bring you as close as possible to his enigmatic personality.
The game was recorded. This account of Turing's life is a definitive scholarly work, rich in primary source documentation and small-grained historical detail.
At the park, he further developed his knowledge of electronics with the assistance of engineer Donald Bayley. Advertisement Hide. Good, Nature[A] really excellent biography.
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