This manual contains information about MS-DOS (DOS) commands, utilities, . Therefore, the reference manual talks about "disks" and makes distinctions when. Download free computer and internet tutorials, manuals and documents. Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM, MS-DOS was the standard operating Htm Format | - Microsoft Word .doc) | - Acrobat PDF .pdf) | - Rich Format Text .rtf ). This tutorial gives you an opportunity to try basic MS-DOS commands. MS-DOS displays this information to let you know how it is configuring your computer.
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In the personal computer operating systems MS-DOS and PC DOS, a number of standard system commands were provided for common tasks. This manual is a user guide for the MS-DOS operating system. It describes Microsoft Version of MS-DOS, and is for anyone who wishes to. hard disk, then this is the wrong manual for you; DOS is very easy only if you There are "disk operating systems" other than PC and MS DOS; for example.
If a program tries to write to a disk 1. If you expected the program to write to a disk, choose the Continue button. If you do not think a program should be writing to a disk, choose the Stop button. Run Anti-Virus to ensure that the program trying to write to the disk is not infected. Resident programs were loaded after VSafe Message If one or more memory-resident programs were loaded after VSafe and you try to remove VSafe from memory, this message appears.
To remove other memory-resident programs from memory 1. Choose the Stop button to leave VSafe resident in memory.
If possible, remove other memory-resident programs from memory in reverse order of their installation. Remove VSafe from memory. BAT file that loads the program. Since a virus was detected Message When you quit Anti-Virus after it has detected a virus, a warning appears. To quit Anti-Virus after a virus is detected l. When Anti-Virus displays this warning message, choose the Reboot button to restart your system.
The xxxxxx virus is known to infect DATA files Message If you have not selected the Check All Files option and Anti-Virus detects a virus, a warning message appears. Miscellaneous Problems A program doesnt run correctly after a virus has been removed To restore a file that doesnt run after a virus is removed 1. Delete the program file from your computer. Restore a non-infected backup copy of the program file to your computer or install a new file that youve obtained from your software vendor.
Windows does not start Windows may not start if system files are infected. Your computer stops responding when you are using Anti-Virus If the directory structure on your hard disk is damaged, your computer may stop responding when you use Anti-Virus. To repair the directory structure of your hard disk 1. Quit Anti-Virus.
To repair the directory structure, type the following at the command prompt: Run Anti-Virus again. An application can access this information in memory faster than it can access the same information on a hard disk. Using the Defragmenter Over time, as programs read from and write to your hard disk, information that is stored on the disk can become fragmented.
It takes much longer for your computer to read and write fragmented files than it does to read and write unfragmented files. To defragment the files on your hard disk 1. Quit all programs that are running, including Windows. Check for lost allocation units on your hard disk by typing the following at the command prompt: Convert lost chains to files? Start the Defragmenter by typing the following at the command prompt: The Defragmenter analyzes the data on that drive and recommends a defragmentation option.
If you want to change defragmentation settings or want more information about the current defragmentation settings before you begin, press TAB to select the Configure button, and then press ENTER. The Optimize menu appears.
Recovering Deleted Files Undelete includes two undelete programs: Configuring Delete Protection Undelete offers three levels of protection: Delete Sentry, Delete Tracker, and standard. Of these, Delete Sentry provides the highest level of protection. It requires a small amount of memory and disk space.
Delete Tracker, the next level of protection, requires the same amount of memory, but minimal disk space. The lowest level of protection, standard, requires neither memory nor disk space, but still makes it possible to recover many deleted files. To choose the Delete Sentry level of protection on your current drive, type the following at the command prompt: To choose a level of delete protection using Undelete for Windows 1. The Configure Delete Protection dialog box appears.
Select a delete protection method, and then choose OK. If you choose Delete Sentry, a dialog box appears. Choose the Drives button. Select the drive s you want to protect, and then choose OK. When you finish changing options, choose OK. If you choose Delete Tracker, select the drives you want to protect, and then choose OK. BAT dialog box appears. To implement the Delete Protection method you selected, choose OK. Undelete for Windows The successful recovery of deleted files depends on their condition.
Files can be in perfect, excellent, good, or fair condition. This condition.
Was protected by the Delete Sentry method of delete protection and can be recovered without difficulty. Was protected by the Delete Tracker method of delete protection. This file may be partially overwritten by other data.
Cannot be recovered by using Undelete for Windows. To recover a file 1. Then choose the drive and directory that contained the deleted file.
The Undelete screen displays files that were deleted from the directory you chose. If the condition of the file you want to recover is Excellent or Perfect, you can easily recover it. If the file is in Good condition, see the following section, Recovering a File in Good Condition, before carrying out the rest of this procedure. If the file is in Poor condition, you cannot recover it by using Undelete for Windows.
If the file is in Destroyed condition, you cannot recover it. Select the file you want to recover, and choose Undelete.
MS-DOS 6 User Guide
If the first letter of the deleted file is a question mark? If this dialog box appears, type the missing letter, and then choose OK. The file is listed as Recovered in the Undelete screen. To recover a file in Good condition 1.
From the Microsoft Tools group, choose the Undelete icon. The main Undelete screen appears. Select the directory you want by using the arrow keys, and then choose OK. Select the file you want to recover, and then choose Undelete To from the File menu. The Undelete To dialog box appears.
Select the drive and directory to which you want to recover the file, and then choose OK. To recover a directory 1. Then choose the drive and directory that contained the directory you want to recover.
The deleted directory appears with its file size listed as dir. Select the directory you want to recover, and then choose the Undelete button. If Undelete can find all the parts of the directory, the directory is recovered and appears as Recovered in the Undelete window. If the directory contains the group of files you want to recover, choose the Add button.
ALL COMMANDS IN MS DOS
If not, choose Skip. Undelete displays another group of files 5. Repeat step 4 until you have identified all the groups of files contained in the deleted directory. Then choose Undelete. The directory is recovered and is listed as Recovered in the Undelete screen.
If you cannot find deleted files by using the Change Drive and Directory dialog box, you can search for them by choosing the Find button. When you select the Delete Sentry method of delete protection, you can specify how many days to save deleted files and a maximum percentage of disk space to allow for Delete Sentrys hidden directory.
Delete Sentry files are purged automatically when these limits are reached or when the disk space they occupy is needed by MS-DOS. When Delete Sentry purges files, it removes the oldest deleted files first. You can also purge deleted files yourself by using Undelete. Purging deleted files creates more room for protecting files, especially when disk space is at a premium.
In the Undelete screen, select the files you want to purge. Files protected by Delete Sentry are in Perfect condition. A dialog box appears, prompting you to confirm the deletion.
The selected files disappear from the Undelete screen. Make the directory that contained the deleted files current. For example, if the deleted files were in the DOS directory, type the following at the command prompt: To recover the files, type the following at the command prompt: One by one, MS-DOS lists the deleted files it has found and prompts you to specify whether it should recover them.
To recover a file, Press Y. MS-DOS may also prompt you to type the initial letter of a filename. Using Advanced Undelete Methods For information about using advanced methods of recovering files or about using undelete syntax, type the following at the command prompt: Configuring Your System Most of your systems configuration information is stored in two files located in the root directory of your startup disk: SYS file is a text file containing commands that configure your computers hardware components memory, keyboard, mouse, printer, and so on.
SYS file first. BAT file contains the commands you want carried out when you start your system. BAT files each time you start your computer. However, you might want to change this configuration. BAT files. These files are located in the root directory of your startup disk usually drive C.
BAT as needed to add and change commands that configure your system. BAT files only when you start your computer. Therefore, any time you change these files, you must restart your computer for your changes to take effect. BAT file 1. Create a startup disk by inserting an unformatted floppy disk in drive A and then typing the following at the command prompt: BAT files to the startup disk you just created by typing the following at the command prompt: BAT commands as necessary.
Each command must begin on a separate line. BAT file, save your changes and quit the text editor. BAT files control basic components of your system. If the changes you made were incorrect, your system might be unable to start correctly. SYS file load special programs or determine how your hardware should work.
SYS file contains some, but not all, of these commands. SYS command. For more information, type help followed by the command name at the command prompt. Loads an installable device driver-a program that controls a hardware component, such as a mouse or memory board.
Loads a memory-resident program also called a terminate-and-stay-resident program, or TSR. COM should be used. SYS file can also contain the include, menucolor, menudefault, menuitem, and submenu commands. Configuring Hardware Devices Each of your computers hardware components is called a device. Your computers keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, disk drives, and memory boards are all devices.
MS-Dos 6 Concise User's Guide.pdf
MS-DOS uses a program called a device driver to control each device. MS-DOS has built-in device drivers for your keyboard, monitor, hard and floppy disk drives, and communication ports. SYS commands. MS-DOS comes with the following installable device drivers. For more information, type help followed by the device-driver name at the command prompt.
Simulates expanded memory and provides access to the upper memory area on a computer with an or higher processor with extended memory. Manages the use of extended memory on a computer with an or higher processor and extended memory. Simulates a hard disk drive by creating a virtual disk drive in your systems random access memory RAM.
Performs double buffering for hard-disk controllers that cannot work with memory provided by EMM or Windows running in enhanced mode. SYS file in any order. The order of the device and devicehigh commands is important, however, because some device drivers enable devices that are needed by other drivers.
SYS extended-memory driver must be loaded before any drivers that use extended memory. SYS file: SYS, if your computer has extended memory. Your expanded-memory manager, if your computer has an expandedmemory board. EXE, if your computer has an processor and extended memory. Any other device drivers. SYS file for an computer with two or more megabytes of extended memory: In this example: EXE device drivers. SYS driver manages extended memory. The ram switch directs the EMM EXE driver to provide access to the upper memory area and simulate expanded memory.
SYS device driver, which provides access to the mouse, into upper memory. BAT Commands A batch program is a text file that contains a series of commands.
BAT file is a special batch program that runs every time you start your computer.
Specifies the directories that MS-DOS should search for executable files and the order in which the directories should be searched. BAT file is to start memory-resident programs, also called terminate-and-stay-resident TSR programs, such as: BAT file, it displays the command prompt. BAT file contains some commonly used commands: A semicolon ; separates the names of the directories. The name you specify must be the name of an existing directory.
BAT files if you are experiencing problems that might be related to the settings in those files. You can bypass startup commands in the following ways: SYS command every time your computer starts. To do this, insert a question mark? BAT files, you might want to temporarily bypass both files.
BAT files 1.
COM file. MS-DOS will not load installable device drivers. As a result, any device that requires an installable device driver will not work. MS-DOS will set environment variables to their default values. The command prompt might not appear the way it usually does; it will display the current drive and directory.
The search path will be set to C: SYS command 1. While the text is on your screen, press and release the F8 key. SYS file followed by a prompt. To carry out the current command, press Y. To bypass that command, press N. To carry out all remaining startup commands, press ESC. To bypass all remaining startup commands, press F5. SYS file, you will see the following prompt: BAT [Y, N]? BAT file, press Y.
BAT file completely, press N. SYS file can define several different system configurations. The following provides an overview of the procedures for defining multiple configurations: SYS file for each configuration you want. SYS commands that are carried out when the label is chosen from the startup menu. SYS file that defines a startup menu and two different configurations.
The first configuration block defines the choices that will appear on the startup menu. This startup menu contains two items, Green and Orange. Each menu item refers to a different configuration block. SYS device driver. SYS file, the following menu appears: Green 2. Orange Enter a choice: Defining a Startup Menu You must first define a startup menu by creating a configuration block with the block heading [menu].
The following table lists the commands a menu block can contain. Defines a menu item. The command specifies the configuration block associated with that item and, optionally, the menu text for that item. Specifies the default menu item. This command is optional; if the [menu] block does not contain a menudefault command, the default is set to item 1.
Specifies a menu item that displays another set of choices. The command specifies another menu block that defines the choices on the submenu. The two menuitem commands define the items that will appear on the menu. The first menuitem value, Net, specifies the name of the associated configuration block.
The second value specifies the menu text, Start the network. The menucolor command sets the text color to 15 bright white and the background color to 1 blue. SYS commands to be run when a particular configuration is selected from the startup menu.
The Future of MS-DOS
A configuration block begins with a block header-the block name surrounded by brackets. The block name must be a single word, but can be as long as you want. The following commands can be particularly useful in configuration blocks.
The set command sets the value of an environment variable. This command can be used to set unique values for each configuration. The include command directs MS-DOS to carry out the commands in another configuration block as well as the commands in the current block. Commands common to all configuration blocks can be placed in a block named [common]. SYS file, even if the block doesnt contain any commands.
You can use as many [common] blocks as you want. MS-DOS runs [common] commands in the order in which they appear. SYS file defines two configurations and includes several commands that are common to both: SYS file configures the computer two ways. SYS command, which must be loaded before other commands. The [common] block at the end is for commands that might be added when you install applications.
BAT commands for each configuration by using the batch commands if and goto. BAT file before the groups of commands for each configuration. For example, you would insert the following label before the group of commands for the [steve] configuration: After the group of commands for each configuration, add the following command: Any commands appearing after that line are carried out for both configurations.
Steve path c: COM program from the C: Freeing Disk Space You can make more disk space available by deleting unnecessary files and by using DoubleSpace to compress the data on your hard disk.
Deleting Unnecessary Files To delete unnecessary files, use the del command. Use the following guidelines to decide which files to delete: Delete any temporary files created by your programs. Some programs store temporary files in a directory specified by the TEMP environment variable. To determine whether your computer has a directory designated for temporary files, type set at the command prompt, and then check the value that MS-DOS displays for the TEMP variable.
Periodically delete any files in the directory specified by the TEMP environment variable. If you havent used a file in a long time, consider copying it to a floppy disk and then deleting it from your hard disk. COM, IO. If you delete any of these files, you might lose data or your system might not start.
Filename s. If you do not need a RAM disk, or if your computer has only conventional memory. Connect two computers via parallel or serial ports so that they can share disks and printer ports. If your computer is not an or higher, or if it has no extended memory.
An allocation unit is the smallest part of a hard disk that can be allocated to a file. Allocation units can get lost when a program unexpectedly stops running without saving or deleting temporary files properly.
Over time, lost allocation units can accumulate and take up disk space. CHK extension. You can then examine and delete these. CHK files. To recover lost file allocation units 1. Quit all running programs. Change to the hard disk you want to check. Then type Y at the prompt. It stores these files in your root directory.
To examine the contents of.
CHK files, use the more command. Delete any. CHK files you dont want by using the del command. After you set up DoubleSpace, you can maintain your compressed drives by using the full-screen DoubleSpace maintenance program or by typing commands at the MS-DOS command prompt.
Getting Help DoubleSpace includes extensive online help for commands, dialog boxes, and procedures. DoubleSpace Help provides explanations of important DoubleSpace concepts. For more information, choose Index from the Help menu. To get Help while running DoubleSpace l. DoubleSpace Setup compresses the data on the drive you select. To compress the existing files on drive C and have DoubleSpace determine the compression settings for you, choose Express Setup.
To compress a hard disk drive other than drive C, or to use the empty space on an existing drive to create a new compressed drive, choose Custom Setup.
If you use a network, start the network software and connect to any drives you usually use. DoubleSpace displays a screen that prompts you to choose between Express and Custom Setup. DoubleSpace displays a confirmation screen that estimates the amount of time it will take to compress drive C. To compress drive C, press C. DoubleSpace defragments and compresses drive C. This process can take from several minutes to several hours, depending on the speed of your hard disk and processor and the amount of data your hard disk contains.
During the compression process, DoubleSpace Setup restarts your computer twice. A final screen shows how long the compression process took and how much free space your new drive contains. After you set up DoubleSpace, your computers drives will be configured differently: Drive C will be compressed and will contain more free space than it did before. You will use drive C just as you did before you set up DoubleSpace. Your computer will have a new drive that is not compressed.
This drive is used to store files that must remain uncompressed, such as IO. Do not tamper with the hidden files on the new drive. If you change or delete these files, you might lose all files on drive C. To install DoubleSpace by using Custom Setup 1. If your computer has more than one hard disk drive, DoubleSpace displays a list of drives. DoubleSpace displays a screen that shows the default compression settings. If necessary, change the compression settings to suit your needs.
To begin the compression process, press C. DoubleSpace carries out the compression process with the settings you specified. This process can take from several minutes to several hours, depending on the speed of your hard disk and processor, the amount of data your hard disk contains, and whether you chose to compress existing data or create a new compressed drive.
After you set up DoubleSpace, your computers drives will be configured differently. The results differ, depending on whether you chose to compress an existing drive or create a new compressed drive.
The drive you selected will be compressed and will contain more free space than it did before. You will use the compressed drive just as you did before you set up DoubleSpace.
The drive that contained the free space you used to create the new compressed drive will contain less free space than it did before. This space is now being used by your new compressed drive. Using DoubleSpace to Manage Compressed Drives To maintain or modify compressed drives or to create additional compressed drives, use the DoubleSpace maintenance program.
You can also manage compressed drives from the command prompt by using switches with the dblspace command. For more information, type help dblspace. To start the DoubleSpace program l.
DoubleSpace starts and displays the main DoubleSpace screen, which lists your existing compressed drives. From this screen, you can carry out the following tasks: Work with a compressed drive. Then, choose the command you want from the Drive or Tools menu. Compress an existing drive. To do this, choose the Existing Drive command from the Compress menu.
Use this command to compress files on a hard disk drive or floppy disk. Add a new compressed drive. You can create a new compressed drive by using free space on an existing drive; to do this, choose the Create New Drive command from the Compress menu.
The Drive menu includes commands you can use to work with the selected drive. The following table describes the commands on the Drive menu. Displays the Compressed Drive Information dialog box, which displays information about the selected drive. Establishes a connection between a compressed volume file and a drive letter, so you can use the files the CVF contains.
Breaks the connection between the selected drives compressed volume file and its drive letter. Unmounting a drive makes it temporarily inaccessible.
Formats the selected compressed drive. Like formatting an uncompressed drive, formatting a compressed drive deletes all the files it contains. Deletes the selected compressed drive and the associated compressed volume file. Deleting a compressed drive erases it and all the files it contains. The Compress menu contains commands you can use to create additional compressed drives or to compress floppy disks.
The Tools menu includes commands you can use to maintain compressed drives. The following table describes the commands on the Tools menu.
Defragments the selected compressed drive. Defragmenting a compressed drive consolidates the free space on it. Displays the DoubleSpace Options dialog box, in which you can specify the last drive letter you want DoubleSpace to use. You can also specify the number of additional drives you want to be able to mount after you start your computer.
Compressing Additional Drives You can use DoubleSpace to compress the files on existing hard disk drives, floppy disks, or other removable media. Castlevania puts players in control of Simon Belmont as he travels through Count Dracula's castle, which emerges every years. Simon encounters Dracula in his lair and defeats him. He escapes the castle as it crumbles apart and credits roll. Castlevania uses platform gameplay and gives Simon a Magic Whip to use as his standard method of combat as well as move and jump.
Simon's whip has a delay between the player's button input and Simon's use of it. When his life meter is depleted or he falls into a pit, he will lose a life. Once he loses all lives, he begins at the beginning of the block of stages players are in of which there are six. Each screen transition leads to a new stage; players will eventually reach an area where they have to deplete a boss' life meter which allows them to progress. Players can replenish health by finding hidden meat in the walls and can gain a new life by gaining a certain number of points which are gained by defeating enemies, picking up money bags, and completing a block.
The language file controls all visible output of the internal commands and the internal DOS. See Section "The Language File" for more information. It's not possible either to create a new configfile or languagefile in this mode. Warning: you can only undo this mode by restarting DOSBox. This can be used to store the value when using batch files.
Both "-set" and "-get" work from batch files and can be used to set up your own preferences for each game. Although it may be easier to use separate DOSBox's configuration files for each game instead. Useful for old programs which don't expect much memory to be free.
Useful if you changed something on a mounted drive outside of DOSBox.Repeat this step until the command prompt appears. DoubleSpace searches your computer for unmounted compressed volume files, and lists the ones it finds. To choose Notes or Examples l. Using the Defragmenter Over time, as programs read from and write to your hard disk, information that is stored on the disk can become fragmented. Deleting Unnecessary Files To delete unnecessary files, use the del command. Useful for old programs which don't expect much memory to be free.
Was protected by the Delete Tracker method of delete protection.
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