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Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. This book takes a pragmatic approach to deploying state-of-the-art optical networking equipment in metro-core and backbone networks. Ebook Pdf optical network design and planning optical networks. Verified Book Library. Ebook Pdf optical network design and planning optical networks. Verified .
Introduction to Optical Networks. Pages Optical Network Elements. Routing Algorithms.
Wavelength Assignment. Optical Protection. Economic Studies. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction Optical Network Design and Planning takes a pragmatic approach to deploying state-of-the-art optical networking equipment in metro-core and backbone networks.
And you have to plan for adequate time to get approval from everyone who is involved.
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Dig Once Governments and other organizations that control rights-of-way face a difficult problem in the Internet age - the continual digging up of their properties for cable plant installation. It's not uncommon for roads to be dug up multiple times for different cable plant owners and operators. This is expensive and disruptive.
A simple solution is what is generally referred to as "Dig Once," a process where the cable plant installer who digs up rights-of-way installs excess conduits or ducts for future cable plant installation. When installing one cable with its associated ducts or conduits, the installer adds in several extra ducts for future use on the route.
The number and type of ducts is based on projected future uses but is probably a minimum of 2 to 5. Future users lease duct space from the local authority and pull in their own cables. This "dig once" policy is especially useful in metropolitan areas where digging is most disruptive and cities looking at becoming "smart cities" find themselves in need of large fiber optic backbones to support desired services.
Call Before You Dig! Digging safely is vitally important. The risk is not just interrupting communications, but the life-threatening risk of digging up high voltage or gas lines. Some obstacles may be found during site visits, where signs like these are visible. There are several services that maintain databases of the location of underground services that must be contacted before any digging occurs, but mapping these should be done during the design phase and double-checked before digging to ensure having the latest data.
If all this sounds vague, it is. Every project is different and requires some careful analysis of the conditions before even beginning to choose fiber optic components and plan the actual installation. Experience is the best teacher. Once the route is set, one knows where cables will be run, where splices are located and where the cables will be terminated.
All that determines what choices must be made on cable type, hardware and sometimes installation methodology. Cables When choosing components, most projects start with the choice of a cable. Cable designs are optimized for the application type. In OSP installations, cables may be underground, direct buried, aerial or submarine or simply underwater.
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More on OSP cable types. Underground cables are generally installed in conduit which is usually a 4 inch 10 cm conduit with several innerducts for pulling cables. Here cables are designed for high pulling tension and lubricants are used to reduce friction on longer pulls.
Automated pulling equipment that limits pulling tension protects the cables. Very long runs or those with more bends in the conduit may need intermediate pulls where cable is pulled, figure-8ed and then pulled to the next stage or intermediate pulling equipment is used. Splices on underground cables are generally stored above ground in a pedestal or in a vault underground. Sufficient excess cable is needed to allow splicing in a controlled environment, usually a splicing trailer, and the storage of excess cable must be considered in the planning stage.
Direct buried cable is placed underground without conduit. Here the cable must be designed to withstand the rigors of being buried in dirt, so it is generally a more rugged cable, armored to prevent harm from rodent chewing or the pressures of dirt and rocks in which it is buried. Direct burial is generally limited to areas where the ground is mostly soil with few rocks down to the depth required so trenching or plowing in cable is easily accomplished.
Splices on direct buried cables can be stored above ground in a pedestal or buried underground. Sufficient excess cable is needed to allow splicing in a controlled environment, usually a splicing trailer, and the storage of excess cable must be considered.
Microtrenching is another method used for underground installation, generally on roadways or in private yards for fiber to the home connections.
Microtrenching involves digging a narrow and shallow trench about 25mm 1 inch wide and mm inches deep using a special tool. Tools are available that can cut through asphalt or concrete roadways or sidewalks or for cutting in bare ground.
After cutting the trench, one can install a special cable or microducts in which cables can be installed by blowing. A typical trench can accommodate a microduct with up to six ducts providing for future expansion. Aerial installations go from pole to pole, but the method of securing cables can vary depending on the situation. Some cables are lashed to messengers or other cables, such as CATV where light fiber cables are often lashed to the heavy coax already in place.
Some cables are made to directly be supported without a messenger, called all-dielectric sefl-supporting cables that use special hardware on poles to hold the cables. Optical ground wire is used by utilities for high voltage distribution lines. This cable is an electrical cable with fibers in the middle in a hermetically-sealed metal tube.
It is installed just like standard electrical conductors. Splices on aerial cables can be supported on the cables or placed on poles or towers, Most splices are done on the ground, although it is sometimes done in a bucket or even on a tent supported on the pole or tower.
Hardware is available for coiling and storing excess cable. Sometime OSP installations involve running cables across rivers or lakes where other routes are not possible. Special cables are available for this that are more rugged and sealed. Even underwater splice hardware is available.
Landings on the shore need to be planned to prevent damage, generally by burying the cable close to shore and marking the landing. Transoceanic links are similar but much more complex, requiring special ships designed for cable laying.
Since OSP applications often use significant lengths of cables, the cables can be made to order, allowing optimization for that particular installation. This usually allows saving costs but requires more knowledge on the part of the user and more time to negotiate with several cable manufacturers.
To begin specifying the cable, one must know how many fibers of what type will be included in each cable. Installation of an OSP cable may cost a hundred times the cost of the cable itself. Choosing a singlemode fiber is easy, with basic nm singlemode called G. Those may need special fiber optimized at nm G. Including more fibers in a cable will not increase the cable cost proportionally; the basic cost of making a cable is fixed but adding fibers will not increase the cost much at all.
Choosing a standard design will help reduce costs too, as manufacturers may have the cable in stock or be able to make your cable at the same time as others of similar design.
The only real cost for adding more fibers is additional splicing and termination costs, still small with respect to total installed cost. And remember that having additional fibers for future expansion, backup systems or in case of breaks involving individual fibers can save many future headaches. Common traits of all outside plant cables include strength and water or moisture protection. The necessary strength of the cable will depend on the installation method see below.
All cables installed outdoors must be rated for moisture and water resistance.
Until recently, most people chose a gel-filled cable, but now dry-water blocked cables are widely available and preferred by many users. These cables use water-absorbing tape and power that expands and seals the cable if any water enters the cable. Installers especially prefer the dry cables as it does not require the messy, tedious removal of the gel used in many cables, greatly reducing cable preparation for splicing or termination.
OSP cable construction types are specifically designed for strength depending on where they are to be direct buried, buried in conduit, placed underwater or run aerially on poles.
The proper type must be chosen for the cable runs. Some applications may even use several types of cable.
Having good construction plans will help in working with cable manufacturers to find the appropriate cable types and ordering sufficient quantities. One must always order more cable than route lengths, to allow for service loops, preparation for termination and excess to save for possible restoration needs in the future.
Like cable types, cable plant hardware types are quite diverse and should be chosen to match the application type and cable types being used. With so many choices in hardware, working with cable manufacturers is the most expeditious way to chose hardware and ensure compatibility.
Besides cable compatibility, the hardware must be appropriate for the location, which can be outdoors, hung on poles, buried, underwater, inside pedestals, vaults or buildings, etc. Sometimes the hardware will need to be compatible with local zoning, for example in subdivisions or business parks. The time consumed in choosing this hardware can be lengthy, but is very important for the long term reliability of the cable plant.
Splicing And Termination Hardware Splicing and termination are the final category of components to be chosen. Most OSP singlemode fiber is fusion spliced for low loss, low reflectance and reliability.
Multimode fiber, especially OM2, 3 and 4, is also easily fusion spliced, but if only a few splices are necessary, mechanical splicing may provide adequate performance and reliability. Finished splices are placed in a splice tray and placed in a splice closure outdoors or optionally in trays on patch panels indoors. They are sealed to prevent moisture reaching the splices and are designed to be re-entered for repair or re-routing fibers.
Splice closures are available in hundreds of designs, depending on the placement of the closure, for example underground in a manhole or vault, above ground in a pedestal, buried underground or mounted on a pole.
Closures must also be chosen by the number and types of cables being spliced and whether they enter at both ends or only one. The numbers of cables and splices that a closure can accommodate will determine the size of the closure, and those for high fiber count cables can get quite large.
Splice trays generally hold twelve single fiber fusion splices but may hold fewer ribbon or mechanical splices. Each splice tray should securely hold the splice and have a cover to protect the fibers when stacked in the closure. Singlemode fibers are best terminated by fusion spicing factory-made pigtails onto fibers in the cable and protecting the splices in a closure or patch panel tray. If termination is done directly on multimode OSP cables, breakout kits will be necessary to sleeve fibers for reliability when connectors are directly attached.
This takes more installation time than splicing pre-terminated pigtails on the cables, as is common with singlemode fiber cables, and may not save any costs. Even complete preterminated outside cable plant systems are becoming available, reducing the time necessary for termination and splicing. Talk to the cable manufacturers to determine feasibility of this option. Outdoor terminations are sometimes housed in pedestals or equipment housings such as those used for local phone switches or traffic control systems.
[PDF Download] Optical Network Design and Planning [Download] Full Ebook
Some of these closures may not be fully sealed from dust and moisture, in which case it is recommended that the fiber connections be inside a more protective housing to prevent future unreliability.
Choosing the proper components for OSP installations can take time, but is important for system operation. Once components are chosen, the materials lists are added to the documentation for download, installation and future reference.
Choosing Components For Premises Installations Premises cabling and outside plant cabling will coexist in the entrance facility or the equipment room where the two are connected. The choice of premises fiber optic components are affected by several factors, including the choice of communications equipment, physical routing of the cable plant and building codes and regulations.
Optical Network Design and Planning
If the design is a corporate network LAN , the design will probably include a fiber optic backbone connecting computer rooms to wiring closets. PhD equivalent degrees in electrical engineering from TU Dortmund, Germany in and , respectively.
In he also got the Dipl. His research interests lie in the field of modeling and simulation of optical communication systems, the assessment of physical-layer impairment aware routing algorithms as well as energy efficiency improvements in networks.
Signals and Communication Technology Free Preview. download eBook. download Hardcover.Optical Network Design and Planning. Choosing a standard design will help reduce costs too, as manufacturers may have the cable in stock or be able to make your cable at the same time as others of similar design. Or, get it for Kobo Super Points!
Provides more illustrative examples of concepts are provided, using three reference networks the topology files for the networks are provided on a web site, for further studies by the reader. Hamzah Asyrani Sulaiman. Chapter Digital Signal Processing.
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